Water chestnut aboriginal appeared in Maryland in the Potomac River abreast Washington, D.C. as a two-acre application in 1923. The plant advance rapidly, accoutrement 40 river afar aural a few years. By 1933, 10,000 acreage of close beds connected from Washington, D.C. to just south of Quantico, VA. This resulted in the accident of bay grasses, and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers responded by administering a massive abatement accomplishment from 1939 to 1945, with aftereffect abatement by duke until at atomic 1965. The amount was estimated at $2.8 million(converted from 1950 to 1992 dollars).
Water chestnut was recorded in the Bird River in Baltimore County for the aboriginal time in 1955. The Maryland Departments of Game and Inland Fish and Tidewater Fisheries used automated abatement and an herbicide (2,4-D, the alone fully-licensed herbicide that has been auspiciously used to ascendancy water chestnut) to ascendancy the population. However, in 1964 it reappeared in the Bird River and an added 100 acreage were apparent in the Sassafras River in Kent County. A aggregate of abatement techniques were used already afresh in 1965, if 200 acreage existed in the Sassafras. This accomplishment was believed to accept been successful, and no plants had been acclaimed in frondescence surveys until summer 1997.
The Bird River water chestnut citizenry advance from about 50 plants in summer 1997 to over three acreage in 1998, and about 30 acreage in 1999. A massive automated and advance agriculture accomplishment began on both rivers in 1999, consistent in the abatement of about 400,000 pounds of plants from the two rivers. In ablaze of the potentially massive problems airish by water chestnut, the Maryland Department of Natural Resources (DNR) connected automated and duke abatement efforts. Less than 1000 pounds of plants were apparent and removed from both rivers in 2000, advertence that the 1999 abatement efforts were acknowledged in abbreviation the absolute amount of plants. In 2001, a ample advance force was used instead of the automated harvesters, which was a cogent anniversary for the all-embracing abolishment effort.
Water chestnut was aboriginal empiric in North America abreast Concord, Massachusetts in 1859. The exact aisle for the addition is unknown. It has been declared a baneful edger in Arizona, Massachusetts, North Carolina and South Carolina and its auction is banned in a lot of southern states.
Water chestnut can abound in any freshwater setting, from intertidal amnion to 12 anxiety deep, although it prefers nutrient-rich lakes and rivers. Presently, the bulb is begin in Maryland, Massachusetts, New York and Pennsylvania, with a lot of ambiguous populations occurring in the Connecticut River valley, Lake Champlain region, Hudson River, Potomac River and the high Delaware River.
Water chestnut can anatomy close amphibian mats, acutely attached ablaze – a analytical aspect of amphibian ecosystems. Once established, it can abate oxygen levels, accretion the abeyant for angle kills. It competes with built-in frondescence and is of little amount to waterfowl. Water chestnut infestations absolute boating, fishing, pond and added recreational activities. Further, its aciculate fruits, if stepped on, can could cause aching wounds.